The proper solution to the problem of displaying Greek text on the Web is Unicode, the standard for encoding the various scripts of the world on computer.
We have a Unicode test page giving addresses from which to obtain Unicode fonts, and demonstrating possible problem characters.
Users will need to set the Unicode font of their browser to the polytonic Greek font they have obtained.
If not, please follow the non-Unicode option (individual users may select they font from the user's settings). The Input in Greek menu presently offers 2 choices. Of these, we recommend:
Beta code. (
Beta codeis the default setting.) or
Transliterationwith or without accents
Of the two, the safest option across browsers is Beta code, which only ever employs ASCII characters.
The following are the keyboard mappings of the various entry methods:
All browsers; All fonts
Accented Transliteration requires ability to enter standard Western European (French) diacritics: diaeresis, acute, grave, circumflex. If you wish to employ diacritics in accented transliteration, you should familiarize yourself with your operating system's conventions for entering diacritics.
If you do not enter accents and breathings, use Roman characters with
^as the macron for long vowels.)
The transliteration switches automatically from unaccented to accented, depending on whether the user has entered a diacritic-sensititve search.
Exceptionally, iota after a long vowel is interpreted as iota subscript only if the search is sensitive to iota subscripts:
|String entered||Diacritic sensitivity||Converted to|
| ||Insensitive|| |
| ||Insensitive|| |
| ||Accents Only|| |
| ||Iota Subscripts Only|| |
| ||All diacritics|| |
MacOSX as of Jaguar (system 10.2), comes with a Monotonic Greek Unicode keyboard installed (
Apple Menu --> System Preferences -->
Intternational --> Input Menu --> Greek). For Polytonic Keyboards, users
will need to consult third-party tools; Donald Mastronarde has created a GreekKeys-compatible
keyboard as part of the American Philological Association-sponsored
On Windows, you will need to add a Greek polytonic Unicode keyboard to your preferences.
Start Menu --> Settings --> Control Panel --> Keyboard --> Input
Locales --> Add --> Greek Polytonic). The keyboard mapping used in
based on Greek typewriters: Microsoft provides a
Greek Polytonic; you will need Java enabled on
your browser. Note that Unicode uses modern Greek names for diacritics:
oxia: acute, varia: grave, perispomeni:
circumflex, psili: smooth breathing, dasia: rough
breathing, ypogegrammeni: iota subscript, dialytika:
Outside Windows 2000, or as an alternative to the Microsoft keyboard, you can also use a program like Tavultesoft Keyman to create your own custom Unicode keyboard. There are three keyboards available for Keyman:
Internet Explorer accepts Greek polytonic text as Unicode input as of version 5.5.
To set the font for Greek Unicode text to be displayed in entry fields
in Internet Explorer for earlier versions (5.0), you will need to select the
appropriate Unicode font as its Greek display font (
Tools --> Internet
Options --> General --> Fonts --> Language Script: Greek --> Web page
font: [Unicode font of your choosing].